As long as you can do each step individually, putting it all together isn’t that hard. It does require practice, though.
[prefix]ane, where prefix represents the number of carbon atoms in the main chain (see the table below)
#-[prefix]ene, #,#-[prefix]diene, #,#,#-[prefix]triene, etc., where each # represents the location of a double bond and the part in bold indicates the number of double bonds
like alkenes, but ending in yne instead of ene
like alkanes/alkenes/alkynes, but add cyclo before the prefix
Side branches (alkyl groups) are named like #-[prefix]yl, #,#-di[prefix]yl, etc., where prefix is the number of carbon atoms in the branch, each # represents the location of the branch on the main chain, and the part in bold indicates the number of this type of branch.
Propyl and butyl groups have non-systematic names for their isomers:
If there are two side branches coming off an aromatic, a classical method can be used instead of numbers: ortho or o- means 1,2; meta or m- means 1,3; and para or p- means 1,4. For example, 1,4-diethylbenzene is the same as p-diethylbenzene.
There are special names for branches that aren’t alkyl groups:
Always pick the longest main chain possible.
If there are any double or triple bonds, the main chain must contain all of them, even if this results in a shorter main chain.
Number the main chain to prefer small numbers, prioritizing the double or triple bonds, then the side branches, and then everything in total (2,2,4 is better than 2,4,4).
Name the side branches in alphabetical order (triethyl comes before dimethyl).
Numbers separated by commas should be listed in ascending order.
Put commas between numbers, and hyphens at number–word boundaries.